Friday, 24 May 2019

5th year art history Q. 16 2016

Friday 24th May- 

Q.16. Architecture, floor plan, lighting and display techniques all influence the overall visitor experience and appreciation of works of art in a gallery or museum. Discuss this statement with reference to a named gallery or museum you have visited. Describe in detail two named works you found interesting and discuss how these works were displayed. and In your opinion, briefly outline two initiatives that would encourage young people to engage with works of art on display in museums or galleries. Illustrate your answer.


A) Discussion of statement and name of gallery - 15 
B) Detailed description of two named works of your chosen, discussion of why they were interesting and how they were displayed - 15 
C) Brief outline of two initiatives that would encourage young people to engage with works on display in art galleries.  - 10 
D) Sketches. 10 

Total  - 50 

Wednesday, 22 May 2019

Leaving Cert. Work - Revision Question - 2010 Q. 1

Wednesday 22nd May

Leaving Certificate work - Please complete the following past examination question. See marking scheme below to help with the answer.


Q.1.  The Christian church influenced the development of art and architecture during the Romanesque period.  Discuss this statement making detailed reference to the structure, layout, and decoration of one named church from the period.
Name and discuss briefly one example of Romanesque sculpture that you have studied.

Illustrate your answer.

Q.8 Marking Scheme:

A) Discuss the influence of the Christian church on the development of art and architecture during the Romanesque Period.  - 5 marks 

B) Name and discussion of chosen Romanesque church making detailed reference to structure, layout and decoration.  - 20 marks

C) Name and brief discussion of one example of Romanesque sculpture - 15 marks

D) Sketches  - 10 marks 

Total  -  50 marks 

Thursday, 16 May 2019

Leaving Cert. 2011 Q. 1)

Thurs 16th May.

LEAVING CERT - If you have finished the 2013 Q. 1 on the Iron age that you started in class yesterday (it is due for Monday coming) then you can start the next question please below:

2011) Q. 1)

 Discuss the ways in which the main architectural and decorative features of Romanesque churches differ from those of Gothic cathedrals. In your answer name one Romanesque church and one Gothic cathedral, and make detailed reference to scale, structure, layout and decoration.
Name and discuss briefly one example of Gothic sculpture that you have studied. 

Illustrate your answer.

Wednesday, 15 May 2019

5th year notes on IRON AGE .....

Wed 15th May:

Fifth year art students - Please take down the notes below on the Iron Age into your notes copies please (some of this you will have taken down in class as far as the Loughnashade trumpet so continue from where you left off)  - Please sketch in the pics amongst the notes as they are seen below & label your sketchs.  This has to be be done for Friday mornings art class.

I also want you to do 2013 Q. 1 past exam paper question essay for Friday morning too.  I have copied & pasted the Question in for you below:

2013 -  H.L 

Q.1) The arrival of the Celts in Ireland gave rise to a distinctive style of decoration used in stone carving and metalwork. Answer (a), (b) and (c). (a) 
Name and briefly discuss this style. 
(b) Name, describe and discuss the object illustrated on the accompanying sheet, referring to form, function, materials, decoration and the techniques used in its production.
and (c) 
Name and briefly describe one other example of stone carving or metalwork from this period.

 Illustrate your answer
(Image on accompanying sheet is of The Loughnashade trumpet )


A) Name and briefly discuss this distinctive style of decoration used in stone carving and metalwork.  - 10 

B) Name, description and discussion of object illustrated, referring to form, function, materials, decoration and the techniques used in its production.  - 20 

C) Name and brief description of one other example of stone carving or metalwork from this period. - 15 

D) Sketches.  - 5 

I will be asking for all of the above Friday morning.

The Iron Age ( 500 BC to 400 AD)
The Iron Age in Ireland spans almost one thousand years from the end of the Bronze Age to the start of the Early Christian Era during the fifth century AD. Knowledge of using Iron metalwork gradually spread throughout Ireland from Europe where Iron was increasingly being used in metalwork. Iron became the main metal used to make tools and equipment because it is very strong – much stronger than bronze. At some point during the Iron Age the Celts invaded Ireland from mainland Europe. The Celts brought to Ireland a new culture which the native Irish adopted and made their own – celtic language, customs and Art.

La Tene

The new style of Art which the Celts brought to Ireland is called La Tene. This is an abstract curvilinear style of decoration. It is called La Tene – after a site in Switzerland where the earliest curvilinear style artifacts were found. This style is found over much of Europe and in Ireland, it lasted for several hundred years until the arrival of Christianity when the Irish La Tene style merged with christian designs and symbols.

The Triskel was a very popular La Tene motif. It is a triple spiral design – a type of “sun wheel”, it was used to decorate La Tene style objects.

Iron became the metal to make tools such as knives, axes and functional objects such as cooking pots and stirrups, however, bronze and gold continued to be used during the Iron Age for their beauty and because these metals do not rust or decay like Iron.

The Loughnashade Trumpet:
The Loughnashade Trumpet dates from the 1st Century BC. It is made from sheet bronze and is over six feet in length. It consists of two tubes of bronze which are joined together in the middle of the trumpet by a bronze ring and a bronze disc that forms the bell of the horn.  The two tubes of bronze that form the length of the trumpet were made by bending sheet bronze into two half cylinders which were then joined together with rivets to form a tube – the edges are sealed from the inside using a strip of bronze which is fastened along the length using rivets . There are more than six hundred rivets used in the length of the horn.  At the bell of the Trumpet there is a bronze disc which is decorated in the La Tene style using the Repoussé technique of hammering the design from behind so it stood out in the front in relief.   The design is composed of long curved lines which spiral to form high relief bosses ( rounded knobs). A number of “Trumpet Curves” are incorporated into the design which flows and curves to resemble plant-life. It is believed that this design is based on the Greek Lotus pattern.

The trumpet was found in the eighteenth century, buried near the shore of Lough Shade, Co Armagh, together with a human skull and three other trumpets, which have since been lost. This lake is overlooked by the Navan Fort ( Eamhain Macha) which was one of the largest Celtic strongholds in Ireland. It is one of the earliest trumpets found in the world and still works as a musical instrument.

Loughnashade Trumpet

Trumpet, Loughnashade, Co. Armagh.
Early Iron Age, first century bc.

Found in a former lake on Co Armagh, the Loughnashade  trumpet is the only one to survive of a hoard of four found originally. Classical writers have left accounts of the unnerving effect on Roman armies which the continental Celts achieved by blowing their war trumpets before battle and we can assume a similar martial function for the splendid trumpet from Loughnashade. However, it is likely that the trumpet was also used on ceremonial and ritual occasions. It consists of two curved tubes, the joining of which is concealed by a ridged ring. At the flared mouth there is a decorated ring and its ornament is executed in the repousse technique, based on the classical lotus-bud motif. The quadrants are mirror images of each other and the design is composed of long, sinuous tendrils which terminate in spiral bosses in high relief. A number of trumpet curves are incorporated into the design. Both tubes are riveted along their length. One tube, which is clearly a later replacement, is poorly executed, while the other is a masterpiece of the rivet craft, the quality being only matched occasionally on other fine metalwork such as the Petrie Crown. 

The Broighter Collar 

The Broighter Hoard is probably the greatest find of ancient artifacts in Ireland. It was uncovered in Co Derry in 1896, when land near the shores of Lough Foyle were being ploughed. The “ hoard’ consists of a model boat with oars and mast, a bowl, two chain necklaces, two rod twisted torcs and a hollow collar. All these objects were made in gold, which had become much a more rare and precious metal in Ireland than in the Bronze Age.
The Broighter Boat and Broighter Collar are famous irish prehistoric artworks. The boat is very unusual for Iron Age Art in that it is not abstract- it is a beautiful representation of a prehistoric boat complete with mast and oars.
The collar is one of the finest examples of la Tene metal craftmanship in Europe. This hollow collar is made from two plates of thin gold soldered together in tubular form and bent into a circular shape to fit around a neck. The La Tene style decoration was made using the repousse technique ( punched from behind). This repousse design would have been hammered into the gold sheets before they were made into a tube. The design consists of trumpet shaped patterns and lentoid bosses ( a boss is a lump or knob, and lentiod means its oval or lens shaped and not circular). These are all linked together with flowing curved lines that make the design resemble a climbing plant complete with stems, leaves and flowers. On the surface of the collar the sheet metal surrounding the repoussé work has been incised with arcs. This makes the La Tene design appear to stand out more from the surface.
There are two terminals at either end of the collar that have a Mortice and Tenon locking device that firmly clasps the colllar together. Unfortunately, the plough that uncovered the collar more than a century ago broke the  collar in two.

The Broighter Hoard including the Broighter Collar and the Broighter Boat

The Petrie Crown:

The Petrie Crown is a fine example of Celtic Iron Age metalworking which displays the curvilinear repeated patterning typical of the La Tene style. It is made of Bronze pieces which are either soldered or riveted together. It consists of a band, two discs and one horn.
The base is a bronze band which was bent into a circular shape that fits onto the head. Tiny perforations running the length suggest that leather or some sort of textile was sewn to the band. A Running pattern of disc- like shapes has been cut out of the band and is decorated with a flowing La Tene Pattern.
Two large discs are soldered onto this band and  decorated with La Tene Trumpet Curves, the centre of some of these curves end in a bird head design. The eye sockets of the birds head would once have contained enamel. The discs are not flat, but are concave in shape. The designs are lined or carved in – ie the background of each line is carved away and smoothed so the lines appear raised. In each disc there is a boss with a mount for a bead – in one boss the bead is missing and in the other a red enamel bead remains.
The conical horn was cut from sheet bronze, was formed by bending sheet bronze into a cone shape and joining the edges using rivets –  the edges were riveted to a strip of copper laid the length of the join inside the cone . Originally there was a second horn that was broken and lost. The horn is also decorated with cut away La Tene Trumpet curves and there is a mount where a bead would have been placed. This bead has since fallen out and become lost.
 Bronze head-dress known as the Petrie Crown, unlocalised.  Iron Age, second century ad. The find-place is not recorded. It is a complex object which was assembled expertly using rivets and solder. The components, which were probably sewn to leather or textile, formed part of an elaborate horned head-dress. One cone survives attached to a dished roundel and evidence for another can be seen on the back of a second roundel. The roundels are attached to plates which have openwork voids creating the impression that they are composed of running semi-circles. Cast sinuous trumpet forms terminating in lentoid bosses and spirals ending in bird heads achieved low-relief ornament. The bird heads on the cone and discs of the crown were once filled with red enamel, as were settings in the bosses on the discs, one of which still contains an enamel stud. 

The Petrie Crown

Stone Carving  (Iron Age)

The Iron Age saw the revival of stone carving which had not occurred in Ireland since the Neolithic Era. The Turoe Stone in Co Galway is the finest example of La Tene style carved onto stone. The all -over design consists of flowing leaf and Trumpet shape pattern with spirals and one triskel ( a motif of three radiating trumpet curves ). A step pattern runs along the base which is believed to be influenced from Greek Key Patterns.

Turoe Stone (Iron age stone carving)

The Castlegrange stone:

The carvings of figures, which are found in Northern Ireland, date from the late Iron Age. This are the earliest examples that we see of human figures in Irish Art.They are believed to be of Celtic Gods or “Deities”. The Boa island figure is 75cm tall.It is located on an Island in Lough Erne called Boa- after the Celtic deity( Badbha – who helped warriors in battle and often appeared in the form of a crow). The carved figure has two faces – front and back and is believed to have been influenced by the Roman Art.god – Janus( who was two headed). It is believed that the Irish Celts were influenced by Roman and Christian cultures in Europe who made statues of gods or saints and prayed to them.

CastleGrange Stone

In the southern half of Ireland there are several Ogham Stones. These are the earliest examples of Irish language been written down. These dashed lines represent letters on the Roman Alphabet. The Ogham Stone here is from Kickeen, in the Glen of Immal in Co Wicklow, and is unusual because of the heart shape of the stone.

Carved figure from Boa Island, Co.Fermanagh

Oghan Stones

Monday, 13 May 2019

Monday 13th May:

5th year art history class:

Please write the following notes below into your hardback copies before Wednesday 15th May.  Any students who were absent for Monday's art history class please catch up on the IRON AGE notes below.

The Iron Age:

Iron began to replace bronze as the principal metal used in the production of tools and weapons in Ireland during what is known as the Iron Age.  These techniques originated with the Celts between 1000BC and 700BC in the Middle East and spread across Europe and Britain during the sixth and seventh centuries B.C.  The spread of the Celt’s culture throughout, as iron was a stronger and more hard wearing metal than bronze.  Ironworking in Ireland is thought to have begun around 350B.C.

Iron Age Structures:
Before we discuss the types of artefacts produced during the Iron Age, it is worth setting the scene with some information on the structures that were in place at the same time. The most common form of buildings were forts. The term fort generally indicates some sort of defensive structure but it is thought that this was not necessarily the reason for the existence of these buildings.  There were three types of fort created during the Iron Age: 1) Ring Forts 2) Hill forts 3) promontory forts.

Ring Forts:
These forts consist of a bank made of earth surrounding a circular space.  In Ireland they are often known by other names such as rath, dun or cathair.  In the east bank of Ireland the banks were chiefly made of earth, whereas in the west where stone was more plentiful, stone walls were used to circle the fort.  A ring fort was a communal dwelling place, housing a number of small wattle and daub huts.  Wattle and daub is a building material used for making walls.  It involves wattle (interwoven branches or sticks) being covered with daub, (a mix of clay, mud, dung and straw and left to harden.
The domestic animals that were free to roam outside the fort during the day would have been brought inside the banks at night.  It is likely that the walls or banks of the fort were used to defend the people or animals from wolves and wild animals rather than invaders.

Hill Forts:
Hill forts are less plentiful in Ireland and, as the name suggests, are found on top of hills.  The banks of these forts include the entire summit of the hill and are generally much larger than the ring forts in construction.  The functions of these forts are unclear to this day.  In some cases they were used to hold pagan ceremonies.

Promontory Forts:
Promontory forts are found in two locations – on the edge of the cliffs and high on a spur of a mountain.  The cliff top forts were often built on a narrow peninsula, ensuring that walls were only needed to defend against invaders from land.

Dun Aengus:  is an example of a promontory fort.  It towers 100m above sea level on the atlantic coast on Inishmore Island, Co.Galway.  It is thought that it housed a settlement spanning over 1,000 years so many alterations would have taken place during this time.

LC art history - IRON AGE 2013 Question - For Monday 20th May

Wednesday 15th May - 

Please complete the following question for Monday 20th May class 2:


2013 -  H.L 

Q.1) The arrival of the Celts in Ireland gave rise to a distinctive style of decoration used in stone carving and metalwork. Answer (a), (b) and (c). (a) 
Name and briefly discuss this style. 
(b) Name, describe and discuss the object illustrated on the accompanying sheet, referring to form, function, materials, decoration and the techniques used in its production.
and (c) 
Name and briefly describe one other example of stone carving or metalwork from this period.

 Illustrate your answer
(Image on accompanying sheet is of The Loughnashade trumpet )


A) Name and briefly discuss this distinctive style of decoration used in stone carving and metalwork.  - 10 

B) Name, description and discussion of object illustrated, referring to form, function, materials, decoration and the techniques used in its production.  - 20 

C) Name and brief description of one other example of stone carving or metalwork from this period. - 15 

D) Sketches.  - 5 

TOTAL:  50 

Leaving Cert Art History Q. 2015 - IRON AGE (For Wed 15th May)

Monday 13th May.

Leaving Cert Art students please complete the following essay for Wednesday on the IRON AGE (section we covered in last weeks Double) .
See marking scheme below to guide you with your answer.

Also, anyone who has not yet handed in the last question (scroll back through art blog home page for the Q. on Gothic period) please hand this in Wed also.

2015 - Higher Level Q. 1

Q.1)The “Petrie Crown” illustrated on the accompanying sheet is an example of a remarkable change in style that took place during the Iron Age. 
Discuss this statement referring to the function, form, and style of the Petrie Crown, and to the materials and techniques used in its production and decoration. 
Name and describe one example of decorative stone carving from this period.

 Illustrate your answer. 


A) Discussion of statement - 10 
(5 for naming La Tène 5 for discussion )

B) Discussion of Petrie Crown with reference to function, form, style and to the materials and techniques used in its production and decoration -  20 

C) Name and description of one example of decorative stone carving from this period. 15 5 for named artefact 10 for description 

D) Sketches - 5 

Total: 50marks